Explain why hash values are an important part of performing a forensic investigation.



Complete the Applying Encryption and Hashing Algorithms for Secure Communications lab. As you go through the lab, be sure to:

Perform all screen captures as the lab instructs and paste them into a Word document.

In the same Word document:

Explain the concepts and procedures involved in applying encryption and hashing algorithms by addressing the following:

Explain why hash values are an important part of performing a forensic investigation.

Explain why (or why not) hash values typically change if data is modified.

Identify a method of securing message integrity during e-mail communications without encrypting the e-mail.

Explain the purpose of the –e switch in the GnuPG command.

Compare and contrast MD5sum and SHA1sum hashing algorithms.

In what ways are they similar (compare)?

In what ways do they differ (contrast)?

Identify the cryptographic algorithms used during the lab.

Explain what is required to decrypt an encrypted message.

Now apply what you learned in the lab to the following scenario.


Cybercriminals have orchestrated a hybrid attack on your city’s municipal website. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has asked that the municipal website be taken offline and that infrastructure that supports the website be isolated until a thorough investigation has been completed.

Your Role

You have been asked to prepare a brief report for city leaders to address the problem.


Continue working in the same document; simply start your report on a new page with an appropriate heading.

In your report you will need to:

Describe different types of attack strategies attackers may employ. You must choose at least four of the following :

Cross-site scripting (XSS) attack.

Cross-site request forgery (CSRF).

SQL injection.

Code injection.

Command injection.

Parameter tampering.

Cookie poisoning.

Buffer overflow.

DMZ protocol attack.

Zero-day attack.

Authentication hijacking.

Log tampering.

Directory traversal.

Cryptographic interception.

URL interpretation.

Impersonation attack.

Evaluate mitigation strategies for each type of attack.

Recommend a course of action for addressing the web attack. Note: To make a recommendation, you will need to make your own assumptions about the type of attack on the city’s municipal website.

Support your work with references to at least three recent, relevant professional resources.

Additional Requirements

Include a title page and references page.

The length will vary depending on how you paste the screen captures. Your report should be 3–4 pages in length.

Cite at least three current, relevant professional resources.

Follow current APA style and format for references.

Use Times New Roman, 12 points, double-spaced.

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Approximately 250 words