DISCUSSION FOUR: CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME AND GENDER. Chapter four(4) of your text continues its discussion on theories on the causes of delinquency. Based on your personal experiences growing up or current life experience, how would you describe the expectation of girls in your family, neighborhood, school, and/or community? In your opinion, do these expectations coincide with the causes of delinquency as discussed in chapter four(4)? Fully explain the basis of your position.
i. Outline the various explanations for why adolescent females become involved in offending.
2. Describe a feminist theory of delinquency.
3. Identify the relationship between adolescent male and female offending.
4. Describe how gender affects the processing of adolescent females in the juvenile justice system.
5. Identify the relationship between class and delinquency.
Social Context of Delinquency:
Gender Roles and Delinquency Ton Loge’s degree, understanding of gender, and gender-based roles are acquired through SOctal ‘nation. Children socialize into pre-existing gender arms, tenants, and construct an understanding of themselves and how they relate to others in terms of these frameworks. As Berkeley, professor Barrie ‘Thorne noted in her well-known early book on the subject,
Gender Play: Parents dress infant girls in pink and boys in blue, give them gender-differentiated names and toys. and expect them to act differently. Teachers frequently give boys more classroom attention than girls. Children pick up the gender stereotypes that pervade books, 50145, advertisements, ‘IT programs, and movies. And peer groups steeped In cultural Ideas about what it is to be a girl or boy, also perpetuate gender-typed place and interactions. In short, boys and girls are different.
The Female Delinquent
Female’delinquency, like all other social behaviors. takes place in a world where gender still shapes the lives of adolescents in powerful ways. Does feminist theory start with the assumption that juvenile females are positioned in society in ways that produce vulnerability to victimization by males, including abuse and the negative effects of poverty? hi addition, the variable of the class cannot be ignored in understanding the behavior of juveniles. In all dimensions of their lives, the class is important in determining how juveniles perceive themselves, are
Girls Study Group is guided by the following research questions:
- Who is the delinquent girl?
- What are the risks and protective factors associated with girls’ delinquency?
- What are the pathways to girls’ delinquency?
- What programs can prevent girls from becoming delinquent?
- What are the system responses to girls’ delinquency?
- What are the life consequences of girls’ delinquency?
- Provide effective Interventions that address the intersecting issues of substance abuse, trauma, mental health, and economic oppressions.
- Focus on juvenile females’ relationships with their family members.
- Provide intensive family-based programs tailored to the needs of adolescent females.
- Provide opportunities for the development of positive relationships between female offenders and their children.
- Provide community-based services such as family counseling, substance abuse. prevention, and educational services.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1: Outline the various explanations for why adolescent females become involved in offending. The focus has been on biopsychological vulnerability factors related to girls’ delinquency. In terms of psychological explanations, the early studies addressed the Innate° female nature and its relationship to deviant behavior, but more recently the focus has been on psychiatric disorders and female delinquency.
Researchers have also focused on sociological factors such as blocked opportunity, social bonding, masculinity, power control, and peer group influence. Research has discovered that the causal factors identified by these theories can explain much of the gender gap in delinquency.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2: Describe a feminist theory of delinquency. The feminist theory of delinquency argues that. girls’ victimization, especially physical and sexual abuse and the relationship between that experience and girls’ crime have been continually ignored.
In addition, their victimizers have the ability to invoke official agencies of social control to keep girls home and vulnerable. Further, girls on the run from abusive homes become involved in criminal activities that exploit their sexuality and, as a result, bring them to the attention of the juvenile and adult justice systems.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3: Identify the relationship between adolescent male and female offending. Gender still shapes the lives of adolescents in powerful ways. Males are more likely to become involved in delinquent behavior, but female adolescents are also involved in the use of alcohol and drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana, at about the same rates as male high school seniors. Females who become prostitutes are likely to be victimized at home. and the data do not show that girls are becoming more violent.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4: Describe how gender affects the processing of adolescent females in the juvenile justice system. Female offending, like all other social behavior, takes place in a world where gender still shapes the lives of adolescents in powerful ways. Female adolescent offenders have been treated unfairly, particularly those who end up in juvenile institutions.
This is so because of society’s disapproval of sexual activity; because of the tendency to give females longer sentences than males, under the guise of “protecting” the female juveniles; because of keeping girls longer in detention and juvenile institutions, as compared to males detained for similar offenses; and because the juvenile justice officials sometimes redefine girls to make them eligible for the kinds of protectionist sanctions that have been traditionally applied.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5: Identify the relationship between class and delinquency. The influence of class cannot be ignored in the handling of youthful offenders by police officers and officials of the juvenile justice system. An examination of how the categories of gender, class, and race are interlocked and influence delinquency across the life course will lead to needed insights into the problems female delinquents face in the United States.
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