Ancient Greek Political Thought, Fall 2020 (pandemic edition) Please respond to each of the three questions below. This is an exam, rather than an essay paper, so each of your responses should be about one page, for a total exam length of no longer than 800 words, which is a strict maximum. 1. Explicate the following quotation, from Nietzsche, Birth of Tragedy, eds. Geuss and Speirs, section 15, p. 75. By “explicate” I mean (first and foremost) to explain what it says, by attending to its various claims and word-choices and defining its key terms where needed. “… science, spurred on by its powerful delusion, is hurrying unstoppably to its limits, where the optimism hidden in the essence of logic will founder and break up. For there is an infinite number of points on the periphery of the circle of science, and while we have no way of foreseeing how the circle could ever be completed, a noble and gifted man inevitably encounters boundary points on the periphery … where he stares into that which cannot be illuminated. When, to his horror, he sees how logic curls up around itself at these limits and finally bites its own tail, then a new form of knowledge breaks through, tragic knowledge, which, simply to be endured, needs art for protection and as medicine.” 2. In the first section of Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche quotes the philosopher Schopenhauer, who says this: “’Just as the boatman sits in his small boat, trusting his frail craft in a stormy sea that is boundless in every direction, rising and falling with the howling, mountainous waves, so in the midst of a world full of suffering and misery the individual man calmly sits, supported by and trusting in the principium individuationis…’” (pp. 16-17) How does Nietzsche use that quote to develop his own figures/forces of Apollo and Dionysos? 3. Explicate the following quotation, keeping in mind what Nietzsche had already said about the “wisdom of Silenus” (pp. 22-23) and the role of “myth” (Section 23): “… I repeat my earlier sentence that only as an aesthetic phenomenon do existence and the world appear jstified; which means that tragic myth in particular must convince us that even the ugly and disharmonious is an artistic game which the Will, in the eternal fullness of its delght, plays with itself.” (Nietzsche, Birth of Tragedy, Geuss and Speirs, section 24, p. 113)
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