1. Explain the Precautionary Principle as one of the major strategies for pollution prevention and give two examples of the application of this principle.
2. Why is the loss of species a concern in terms of biodiversity and ecosystem services?
3. Why is the overconsumption of resources and generation of waste a concern?
4. How many million tons of solid waste was generated in 2019 according to NEA and how many were recycled?
5. Define biodiversity from an environmental perspective and explain how the loss of species impact biodiversity and contribute to the reduction of the ecosystem services.
6. Name two Acts of Parliament addressing environmental protection in Singapore.
7. Ambient air sampling was conducted and showed high levels of suspended particulates, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and lead. Give examples of sources and processes which generate such pollutants.
8. What are fugitive emissions? Why are these difficult to control? Give examples of measures taken to minimise fugitive emissions from industrial plants.
9. Differentiate the health impact of PM10 and PM2.5 based on its size alone.
10. What is an acid deposition? Cite two methods of controlling acidic emission.
11. Differentiate dissolved solids from suspended solids. Give examples of wastewater treatment method to remove these from your wastewater?
12. Describe the operation of a multi-cyclone system to remove PM. Given an example of an advantage and a disadvantage of the use of cyclones in removing PM.
13. How does an electrostatic precipitator work? How to remove collected dust from an EP/ESP?
14. What is an advantage and disadvantage of EP/ESP over cyclones?
15. How does a baghouse filter work? How do you remove the dust from a shake and deflate design baghouse filter?
16. Name two (2) main legislation on Air Pollution in Singapore and cite two (2) key requirements.
17. What is Singapore’s PSI and how is the number calculated?
18. What are the 3 major spheres or spaces of the physical environment?
19. Describe the impacts of high BOD discharge into a body of water and the dissolved oxygen (DO) in it.
20. Which portion of the atmosphere is where weather disturbances occur?
21. Give 4 major areas of carbon storage or carbon sink in the natural cycle of carbon?
22. Which natural cycle produces free fertilizer?
23. Compare and differentiate ozone depletion and global warming problems?
24. What is the most significant of the GHGs? Names sources of emission for this significant GHG.
1. Describe two engineering control technologies used to remove gaseous pollutants and particulates from the air stream. Cite its advantages and limitations.
2. Why biodiversity important in an ecosystem? What factors could result in reducing biodiversity and how does this impact the ecosystem?
3. What are two (2) main anthropogenic (man-induced) sources of CO2 in the atmosphere and give possible control methods for controlling the emission of CO2.
4. Climate change and haze are two environmental concerns affecting Singapore. Give examples of government actions to combat the impacts of these environmental issues.
5. What is eutrophication, cite examples of typical pollutants and their sources, and describe the processes leading to eutrophication
6. Your company plans to put up a wastewater treatment plant to remove the following pollutants; suspended solids, oil and grease, BOD and low pH. Propose a series of wastewater control technologies to treat these pollutants. Describe the process involved in removing the pollutant.
7. Your company operates a hotel establishment. You use water and electricity from the public utilities, however, you also need to operate a diesel power generator to sustain the operation. The generator emits CO, CO2, NO2 and smoke. The hotel has a medium size golf course and a botanic garden. What are the main sources of possible environmental pollution from the hotel, the golf course and botanic garden operation and give 2 key mitigating measures?
8. Explain and illustrate global warming or the greenhouse effect by identifying pollutants and their sources. Describe 3 examples of actions being taken to combat global warming or greenhouse effects.
9. Describe and illustrate the following natural cycles and what roles do natural cycle perform in maintaining a healthy environment.
a. Carbon cycle
b. Water cycle
c. Nitrogen cycle
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